A kīpuka is a raised island of native forest and plants situated in the middle of a recent lava flow. Because of its elevation, a kīpuka is spared burial and incineration. Hawaiians say a kīpuka is an oasis saved from Pele's embrace. The word is a variation of the Hawaiian
That rivers and streams seldom flow (naturally) in straight lines is a gift of beauty. Otherwise we would not have canyons that bear the shape of moving water. The river's meandering pattern forms sinuous, sweeping bends. Goosenecks are meanders so tight is succession that their bows nearly meet one another.